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Literature and other Resources

The APTA has a variety of resources related to clinical education,  please click here for information on site development, clinical education resources, education networking and regulations related to students.  


In addition, below is recommended literature on clinical teaching and learning.  Many are available for free to APTA members and members of the clinical education section.  

Clinical Decision-Making

  • Atkinson, H.L., Nixon-Cave, K. A Tool for Clinical Reasoning and Reflection Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Framework and Patient Management Model. Phys Ther. 2011; 91:416-430.

  • Gilliland, S. Clinical Reasoning in First- and Third-Year Physical Therapist Students. J of Phys Ther Educ.2014. 28(3); 64-80.

  • Fu, W. Development of an Innovative Tool to Assess Student Physical Therapist’s Clinical Reasoning Competency.  J of Phys Ther Educ.; 29(4): 14-26.

  • Furze J., Gale, J.R., Black, L., Cochran, T.M., Jensen, G.M. Clinical Reasoning: Development of a Grading Rubric for Student Assessment.  J of Phys Ther Educ.2015; 29(3):34-45.

  • Hendrick, P., Bond, C., Duncan, E., Hale, L. Clinical Reasoning In Musculoskeletal Practice: Students’ Conceptualizations. Phys Ther. 2009; 89:430-442.

  • Huhn, K., Black, L., Jensen, G.M., Deutsch, J.E. Tracking Change in Critical-Thinking Skills. J of Phys Ther Educ.2013.27(3):26-31.

  • Seif, G.A., Brown, D., Annan-Coultas, D. Fostering Clinical-Reasoning Skills in Physical Therapist Students Through an Interactive Learning Module Designed in the Moodle Learning Management System. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2013. 27(3):32-40.

  • Vaughn, D.W., Shoemaker, M.J., DaPrato, D., Svihra Murray, K., Van Huisen, J. The Ability of Final-Year Doctor of Physical Therapy Students to Make Keep/Refer Decisions . J of Phys Ther Educ.2011;25(3):60-67.

  • Wong, C.K., Daniels Abbruzzese, L. Collaborative Learning Strategies Using Online Communities. of Phys Ther Educ.2011.25(3):81-87.



  • Anderson, D. Irwin, K. E. Self-assessment of professionalism in physical therapy education. Work. 2013:275-281.

  • Blake Gleeson, P. Understanding Generational Competence Related to Professionalism: Misunderstandings That Lead to a Perception of Unprofessional Behavior. J of Phys Ther Educ.   2007.21(3): 23-28.

  • Foord-May, L., May. Facilitating Professionalism in Physical Therapy: Theoretical Foundations for The Facilitation Process.  J of Phys Ther Ed. 2007. 21(3):6-12.

  • Hayward, L.M., Blackmer, B. A Model for Teaching and Assessing Core Values Development in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students . J of Phys Ther Educ. 2010.24(3):16-26.

  • Hayes, K.W., Huber, G., Rogers, J., Sanders, B. Behaviors That Cause Clinical Instructors to Question the Clinical Competence of Physical Therapist Students. Phys Ther. 1999; 653-671.

  • Jette, D.U., Portney, L.G. Construct Validation of a Model for Professional Behavior in Physical Therapist Students .Phys Ther. 2003.83(5):432-443.

  • Masin, H.L., Education in the affective domain: a method/model for teaching professional behaviors in the classroom and during advisory sessions.  J of Phys Ther Educ. 2006.16(1):37-45.

  • Plack, M.M. The Development of Communication Skills, Interpersonal Skills, and a Professional Identity Within a Community of Practice. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2006.20(1):37-46.

  • Recker-Hughes, C., Dungey, J., Miller, S, Walton, A.H., Lazarski, J. A Novel Approach to Clinical Instructor Professional Development: A Multi-Session Workshop with Application of Skills in a Student Standardized Patient Exam. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2015. 29(1): 49-57.

  • Reynolds, P.J. How Service-Learning Experiences Benefit Physical Therapist Students’ Professional Development: A Grounded Theory Study. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2005.19(1):41-54.

  • Santasier, A.M., Plack, M.M. Assessing Professional Behaviors Using Qualitative Data Analysis.  J of Phys Ther Educ. 2007. 21(3): 29-39.

  • Skøien, A.K.  Va˚gstøl, U., Raaheim, A. Learning physiotherapy in clinical practice: Student interaction in a professional context. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice. 2009.25(4):268-278.

  • Wise, D.  Professionalism in Physical Therapy: An Oath for Physical Therapists.  .  J of Phys Ther Ed. 2014: 28(1):58-63.

  • Wolff-Burke, M. Clinical Instructors’ Descriptions of Physical Therapist Student Professional Behaviors. .  J of Phys Ther Ed. 2005.19(1):67-76.

  • Wolff-Burke, M., Ingram, D., Lewis, K; Odom, C., Donegan  Shoaf, D. Generic Inabilities and the Use of a Decision-Making Rubric for Addressing Deficits in Professional Behavior. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2007.21(3):13-22.





  • Crawford, E., Biggar, J.M., Leggett, A., Huang, A., Mori, B., Nixon, S.A., Landry, M.D. Examining International Clinical Internships for Canadian Physical Therapy Students from 1997 to 2007.Physiotherapy Canada; 2010.62(3):261-273.

  • Fitzgerald,L.M., Delitto, A., Irrgang, J.J.  Validation of the Clinical Internship Evaluation Tool. Phys Ther.2007.87(7): 844-860.

  • Mai, J.A., Stern, D.F., Holman, J.H., Melzer, B.A., Thiele. A.K., Rosenthal, R.S. Examining the Impact of an Integrated (ICE) on Interpersonal Skills Prior to the First, Full-Time Clinical Internship: Cool as ICE. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2014.28(3):81-97.

  • Martorello, L. The Optimal Length of Clinical Internship Experiences for Entry-Level Physical Therapist Students as Perceived by Center Coordinators of Clinical Education: A Pilot Study. Phys Ther.2006.20(1):56-58.

  • Rapport. M.J.,Kelly, M.K., Hankin, T.R., Rodriguez, J.W., Tomlinson, S.S., A Shared Vision for Clinical Education: The Year-Long Internship. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2014.28(1):22-29.

  • Sabus, C. The Effects of Modeling Evidence-Based Practice During the Clinical Internship. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2008.22(3):74-84.

  • Sharma, N.K., Sabus, C.H. Description of Physical Therapist Student Use of Manipulation During Clinical Internships. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2012. 26(2):9-18.

  • Stubbs, B., Soundy, A. Physiotherapy students’ experiences of bullying on clinical internships: an exploratory study. Physiotherapy. 2013. 99(2):178-180.

  • Whiteside, D., Stubbs, B., Soundy, A. Physiotherapy students’ experiences of bullying on clinical internships: a qualitative study. Physiotherapy. 2014. 100(1):41-46.


Quality Student Learning

  • Greenfield, B.H., Jensen, G.M., Delany, C.M., Mostrom, E., Knab, M., Jampel, A. Phys Ther. June 2015; 95:924-933.

  • Jette, D.U., Nelson, L., Palaima, M., Wetherbee, E.  How Do We Improve Quality in Clinical Education? Examination of Structures, Processes, and Outcomes.   J of Phys Ther Educ. 2014. 28(1):6-12.

  • McCallum, C.A., Mosher, P.D., Jacobson, P.J., Gallivan, S.P., Giuffre, S.M. Quality in Physical Therapist Clinical Education: A Systematic Review. 2013; 93:1298-1311.

  • Pollard, K.C. Non-formal learning and interprofessional collaboration in health and social care: the influence of the quality of staff interaction on student learning about collaborative behavior in practice placements. Health & Social Care. 2008. 7(1):12-26.

  • Recker-Hughes, C.,Wetherbee, W., Buccieri, K., Timmerberg, J.F., Stolfi, A.M.  Essential Characteristics of Quality Clinical Education Experiences: Standards to Facilitate Student Learning. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2014.28(1): 48-55.

  • Stachura, K., Garven, F., Reed, M. Quality assurance: measuring the quality of clinical education provision. Physiotherapy. 2000. 86(3):117-126.

  • Strohschein, J., Hagler, P., May, L. Assessing the Need for Change in Clinical Education Practices. Phys Ther. 2002; 82:16-172.



Expert and Novice PT Practice

  • Black, L.L., Jensen, G.M., Mostrom, E., Perkins, J., Ritzline, P.D.,  Hayward, L., Blackmer, B. The First Year of Practice: An Investigation of the Professional Learning and Development of Promising Novice Physical Therapists.

  • Buccieri, K.M., Pivko, S.E., Olzenak, D.L.  Development of an Expert Clinical Instructor: A Theoretical Model for Clinical Teaching in Physical Therapy. J of Phys Ther Educ. 2013. 27(1):48-57.

  • Resnik, L., Hart, D.L. Using Clinical Outcomes to Identify Expert Physical Therapists.  Phys Ther. 2003;83(11):999-1002.

  • Resnik, L., Jensen, G.M. Using Clinical Outcomes to Explore the Theory of Expert Practice in Physical Therapy. Phys Ther. 2003; 83(12):1090-1106

  • Jensen, G.M., Gwyer, J., Shepard K.F., Kack, L.M. Expert Practice in Physical Therapy. Phys Ther.2000. 80(1): 28-43.

  • Wainwright, S.F., Shepard, K.F., Harman, L.B., Stephens, J.  Novice and Experienced Physical Therapist Clinicians: A Comparison of How Reflection Is Used to Inform the Clinical Decision-Making Process. Phys Ther. 2010:90:75-88.

  • Wainwright, S.F., Shepard, K.F., Harman, L.B., Stephens, J. Factors that Influence the Clinical Decision-Making of Novice and Experienced Physical Therapists. 2011; 91:87-101.


Modeling Evidence Based Practice in the Clinic

  • Fruth, S., Havertape, L., Jones, J., Newbury, C., and Conn, L.  Can onsite presentations led by physical therapist students increase clinician’s confidence in aspects of evidence based practice?   Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 27, No 3, Fall 2013

  • Sabus, C.  The effects of modeling Evidenced-Based Practice during the clinical internship.  Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 22, No. 3, Winter 2008.



PT/PTA Relationships


  • Mathews, H., Smith, S., Hussey, J., Plack, M.   Investigation of the preferred PT-PTA relationship in a 2;2 clinical education model.   Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 24, No 3, Fall 2010



Alternative Teaching Models


  • Ladyshewsky, R.K.  (1995) Enhancing service productivity in acute care Inpatient settings using a collaborative clinical education model.   Physical Therapy, Vol 75, No 6, 503-510.

  • Nemshick, M. T. and Shepard, K. (1996).  Physical Therapy Clinical Education in a 2:1 Student-Instructor Education Model.   Physical Therapy,  Vol 76, No 9, 968-981.

  • Ladyshewsky, R.K., Barrie, S. C., and Drake, V.M.  (1998).  A Comparison of productivity and learning outcome in individual and cooperative physical therapy clinical education models.  Physical Therapy, Vol 78, No 12, 1288-1298.

  • O’Conner, A., Cahill, M., and McKay, E.A. ( 2012).  Revisiting 1:1 and 2:1 clinical placement models:  Student and clinical educator perspectives.   Australian Occupational


CI Credentialing

  • Coleman-Ferreira, K.W., Millar, L., Fogg, R., and King, R. A.  American Physical Therapy Association—Credentialed Clinical Instructors:  A survey regarding source of motivation for pursuing credentialing.  Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 26, No 3, Fall 2012.

  • Housel, N., Gandy, J., and Edmondson, D.  Clinical Instructor Credentialing and Student Assessment of Clinical Instructor Effectiveness.   Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 24, No 2, Spring 2010.

  • Housel, N., and Gandy, J.  Clinical Instructor Credentialing and its effect on Student Clinical Performance Outcomes.   Vol 22, No 3, Winter 2008.


Manipulation/Joint Mobilization

  • Sharma, N., and Sabus, C.  Description of physical therapist student use of manipulation during clinical internships.   Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 26, No 2, Spring 2012,

  • Struessel, T.S., Carpenter, K.J., May, J. R., Weitzenkamp, D.A., Sampey, E., and Mintken, P.  Student perception of applying joint manipulation skills during physical therapist clinical education:  Identification of barriers.  Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Vol 25, No 2, Spring 2012.

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